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By:-RAHUL KUMAR MISHRA||27 - Nov - 2020

Both India and China got freedom in 1947 and 1949 respectively. But both nations have a lot of differences on border issue. China is a country which has border dispute with almost its all neighbouring nations. China has dispute in South China Sea with Japan, South Korea, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam and some South Asian Sea. India, Australia and United States also emerged themselves in South China Sea. Bhutan is also struggling with China in a border issue. Nepal is a new prey of China for Border Issue. Almost Every Nation which is bordered with China has border issue with China. Only Russia and North Korea resolved its border issue with China. Russia is more powerful than China so China did not create hurdle for resolution on border dispute. North Korea is living as blessing of China so North Korea has no issue with China. It depends on China how it handles North Korea. But other nations with bordering with China are suffering badly. Face off in Ladakh with India is a new string for China. India & China share its border on many places. India and China engaged firstly in Aksai Chin. It was controlled by China but claimed by India. This area was captured by China in 1962 war with India. After that, Arunachal Pradesh is biggest hot spot which is controlled by India and claimed by India. Tawang District is also situated in Arunachal Pradesh. Third number is Doklam which is a tri-junction among India, China, and Bhutan. Fourth Dispute Point is Shaksgam Valley which is controlled by China and claimed by India. That is called Trans-Karakoram Tract. This Area is gifted by Pakistan which is situated in POK (Pakistan Occupied Kashmir). Fifth spot is Territorial disputes in South China Sea.

The MacMohan Line between India and China was part of the 1914 Shimla Pact between British India and Tibet without Agreement with China. China have never accepted this treaty because it stated that Tibet was not independent. In 1962, Chinese Troops MacMohan Line and entered India. India lost to China and both nations established (LAC) Line of Actual Control. China forcefully captured thousands square Km land of India.

TSONG TSO is an area which is situated in Ladakh Region but it has been captured by China in 1962. It is no-men land. It is a route between India and China for Ancient Trade. Sikh Empire annexed Ladakh into Jammu & Kashmir in 1834. In 1841, Sikh Army invaded on Tibet but was defeated by Chinese Forces. At last, Sikh Army and Chinese Army signed a treaty in 1942 in which both army agreed not to interfere each other’s territory. But in 1946, British defeated Sikhs and captured Ladakh. Transfer of Sovereignty in Ladakh had been changed. At that time, British Officials and Chinese Officials met altogether and solved the issues of PONGONG LAKE & KARAKORAM PASS, But Aksai Chin remained a disputed area for both authorities. Area of Aksai Chin was captured by China during 1962 war.

During the time of British in India, British Civil Servant W. H. Johnson proposed “JOHNSON LINE” in 1865 between India and China by which Aksai Chin was made the part of Jammu & Kashmir. At that time, China was engaged with DUNGAN REVOLT, so it did not control XINJIANG. This “JOHNSON LINE” never introduced and presented to Chinese Authority. Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir accepted this proposal of W. H. Johnson. Almost 18000 Square Kilometres area was contained in Jammu & Kashmir. In 1897, British Officer Sir John Ardagh proposed a boundary line along the KUN LUN Mountains north of the YARKAND RIVER. At that time, Britain was more concern of expansion of Russia and China was too weak to retaliate its boundary. Actually It was a new concept of JOHNSON LINE. It was accepted by British Government of India.

In 1893, An Official of China Hung-Ta-Chen showed a map to A British Counsel General George Macarteny at Saint Petersburg in which border had broad details. In 1899, Britain proposed a revised boundary. It was showed that Lingzi Tang Plains would be part of India and Aksai Chin was the part of China. According to some sources, China accepted this boundary line, but never responded. British Government used both the JOHNSON-ARDAGAH and the MACARTENY-MACDONALD lines as per its comfort. Finally, British Government accepted fully MACDONALD LINE to be the boundary. A turning point came when XINHAI REVOLUTION collapsed the Central Power of China in 1911. In 1917, POSTAL ATLAS OF CHINA published that boundary in AKSAI CHIN as per JOHNSON LINE, which spread the KUNLUN MOUNTAINS. After that, PEKING (BIEJING) UNIVERSITY ATLAS published in 1925 in which AKSAI CHIN was kept in India. But by this time, British India did not establish any post in AKSAI CHIN and never controlled AKSAI CHIN. British India made one more mistake not to interfere in TIBBET ISSUE with China. Boundary Issue was unsolved by Independence of India in 1947.

AKSAI CHIN was the part of India in 1947. Government of India fixed its boundary and included AKSAI CHIN as per ARDAGH-JOHNSON LINE. But Chinese Government did not accept it because of increasing power of Communism. Expansions had come to Chinese Government. Pakistan and China both wanted to settle down its boundary dispute in Pakistan Administered GILGIT-BALTISTAN. Both Countries began negotiations on 13th October 1962. Both Nations agreed to solve boundary issue as per MACARTENY-MACDONALD line. Pakistan had to leave TRANS KARAKORAM TRACT 5800 Km2 area to China. Due to this pact, India was in danger because India wanted to resolve with the help of JOHNSON LINE, But Pakistan and China both created a great hurdle for India. After that China attacked on India to capture AKSAI CHIN between 20th October and 21st November 1962. China forcefully pushed India back from AKSAI CHIN. Pakistan did a fake deal with China because Whole Jammu & Kashmir was the part of India, not of Pakistan. Actually Pakistan gifted 5800 Km2 area to China to create pressure on India.

British India took Assam in 1826 after Anglo-Burmese Wars from 1824 to 1826. In 1914, British India, China and Tibet organized a summit in Shimla for Tibet status and border issue. British Negotiator was Henry MacMohan who persuaded both China and Tibet to give consent MacMohan Line between India and Tibet. After sometime, China disagreed with this pact and objected MacMohan Line. China did not sign on this border pact. Finally, India and Tibet sealed MacMohan Line. After independence, India patrolled as per MacMohan Line. According to China, Tibet Authority was local authority which had no right to seal an International pact. Such an approach of China created great hurdle for India and Tibet. China started to build roads, but India did not know that China was constructing 179 Km road in AKSAI CHIN. AKSAI CHIN was easily approachable for China. India had no idea that Road was being constructed by 1958. When China released new map of AKSAI CHIN, then India knew what was being done on the border. The THEN Prime Minister Nehru jee expressed that AKSAI CHIN was the part of Ladakh for centuries. After that China argued that MACARTENY-MACDONALD line gave AKSAI CHIN to China. India and China set up a committee to resolve border issue but no result came out. Finally China attacked on India 20th October 1962 and captured whole area of AKSAI CHIN.

After that Nathu La and Chola La clashes took place in 1967 between India and China at the border of Sikkim. According to independent sources, India got DECISIVE TACTICAL ADVANTAGE and defeated the Chinese forces in these clashes. Four Indian Soldiers were killed at TULANG LA in Arunachal Pradesh on 29th October 1975. During patrolling time, Almost 40 Chinese Soldiers attacked on them. Indira Gandhi Government registered a strong protest for killing Indian Troops, but did nothing. Conflict between India and China was continued during patrolling because LAC (LINE OF ACTUAL CONTROL) was not defined well. Both Troops had separate LAC, so such incidents took place. In 2017, India and China troops were face to face in DOKLAM near DOKA LA Pass. Chinese Army started road construction a disputed area by which Indian Army had to interrupt and get it shut the road construction. Although this area was related to BHUTAN, but due to Friendship Pact with Bhutan, India stood up with Bhutan against China. It was a tri-junction among India, Bhutan and China. At last, Chinese Army retreated and set up peace in war like situation. In june 2020, Indian Army and Chinese Army once again were face to face in GALWAN VALLEY. 20 Indian Soldiers were killed without fire a single bullet. It was claimed that Indian Army also killed more than 40 chinese troops without fire a single bullet, but China denied it. Indian State SIKKIM also had seen engagement between Indian and Chinese troops for bloodshed.

Relation between India and China is not well since 1947, but Indian Authority pretended,”HINDI CHINI BHAI BHAI.” But it never happened by now. At present, China is dumping its electronics items in India. China has developed some very suspicious mobile applications by which it can reign over social site in India. But India banned almost 267 Mobile Applications of China. Balance of Trade with China is worsening for India. China exported to India too much and imported too less. On the other hand, India imported too much from China and exported very less to China. China is earning too much money, but on the border, China is most dangerous enemy of India. At the many International Organizations like UNITED NATIONS, SCO, etc, China accompanied Pakistan against India. We need to understand double standard of China.

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China always stabbed back of India.

Vishal