By:-RAHUL KUMAR MISHRA||25 - Nov - 2019


First united fight was broken out against East India Company in 1857. India was divided into many independent states. All Kings and Nawabs united for its freedom. East India Company came to India only for its own profit. Such a policy began to irritate Indians. They knew that East India Company earned profits in trade from selling finished goods and purchasing raw materials. Indian Businesses were destroyed so that English Finished Goods could have sold in Indian Market. This policy led a huge dissatisfaction among Indians. Jobs in East India Company were reserved for only British Citizens. Discrimination in Jobs fumed Indian Upper and Middle class. Recruitment was open in only Company Army. There were jobs only for lowest ranks as Sepoys. Sepoys from India were paid less salary than Company British Troops. Indian Sepoys revolted many times against East India Company, but they were suppressed by East India Company. Lord Dalhousie launched Doctrine of Lapse in which if Ruler of state was died childless, that state would be merged into East India Company. It was most dissatisfaction factors for Indian State Rulers. Revolt took place and collective attacks on East India Company restored its own territories very quickly. But there were a lot of kings and nawabs who still were giving full support to army of East India Company. Army of Company started Public Executing of captured revolutionaries. East India Company once again re-captured almost all territories with the help of Indian Kings and Nawabs. Some of them revolted against East India Company, but many of them betrayed India. All sacrifices were made by Mangal Pandey, Kuwar Jagdish Singh, Rani Laxmi Bai, Tatya Tope, etc. went in vein. After revolution of 1857, British Government took over East India Company. British Government began its rule in India and gave more facilities to Indians.


Thomas Babington Macaulay made good move for English in 1835. English was taught at priority level in all the school. On the eve of revolution of 1857, East India Company established three universities (Calcutta University, Madras University and Madras University). Education of medium was English. After revolution, English was made compulsory in all elementary and secondary schools. Thousands of elementary and secondary schools were opened in India. British Government wanted to teach British Educational System in India. Christian Missionaries came to India and started to teach Christianity in the name of education. English became necessary in educational system of India. Indians also started to pass matriculation and became sub civil servants. A lot of Indian Students attracted Law Education. By 1911, British India have almost 186 colleges for higher education. Due to such step of British Government, Indians looked beyond the Indian Traditional Education. Persian language was used as official language but English slowly and slowly eradicated Persian language. Indian studied English Literature and European History. A lot of philosophers’s thought on Liberty, Equality, Right, etc. were taught to Indians. Many freedom fighters of Indian National Movement passed Law in England.


After taking over by British Government, India was growing 1% rate and its population also contributed 1% at every year. Although British Government was more sensitive for Indian Economy than East India Company. India became a colony of British Government but it added many positive atmosphere for India. India was given new seeds and fertilizers for farming. At that time, most of population in India was dependant on agriculture. Due to selfishness of British Government, GDP of India fell down drastically from 20% to 5%. Jamshedji Tata defied British Government not to take cheap technology for milling yarn machine from Britain. He got it managed to bring milling yarn machine from United States of America. After that Tata Group wanted to enter in Heavy Steel Industry. In 1890, Tata Iron and Steel Company set up a plant in Bihar. This time also Tata Group snubbed British Technology. They took American Technology. Tata Group was a nationalist ideological group but it did not support most to Congress due to its extensive support to Trade Unions. Railway was spreading in India as per every possible steps. It was divided into zones and given advisory to every zone to build Railway Infrastructure because of transporting goods from place to place. Irrigation was improved much. Canals were made and improvised. Upper Ganga Canal was reached to Kanpur. It was almost 560 Km from Haridwar to Kanpur. It boosted irrigation of that area. One thing was same during British Government, that was exporting raw materials to Great Britain and importing finished goods from there like East India Company earlier.  


After revolution of 1857, British Government was keen to watch over Indians. Preparation of revolution was a secretive task. East India Company was unable to trace it on time. Base of East India Company was shaken. British wanted a council in which Indians would be members. Through conversation, Indians could give suggestions to British Government for social welfare. In this way, British could know what was going on in Indian Minds. If suggestions were in favour of British, it would be accepted. Whole preparation was to abort to repeat revolution 1857 once again. Former District Magistrate of Kanpur during revolution 1857 Mr. A O Hume with elite Indians founded Congress in 1885 in Mumbai. It was totally a watch over organization who was to support British Government to stay in India for long time. Mr. Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee became first President of Congress. Many Colleges and Universities were founded in which Indians also started to study Western Political theories and philosophers. In 1867, British Government granted autonomous status to Canada and democracy came into practice there. Such demands also rose in India. Indians who had such thought, were interested to join Congress for their demands on democracy. Congress was founded to help British Government to stay on, but some nationalists like Bal Gangadhar Tilak joined it for Indian approach. Conflicts of interest became big issue. Finally Congress was divided into two stream as Moderates and Extremists. Viceroy Lord Curjon divided Bengal into west Bengal and east Bengal as per population of hindu and muslim in 1905. Congress opposed this move so muslim leaders of congress quit congress and made muslim league. Muslim League welcomed English Government to make a separate state for muslims. Gopal Krishn Gokhale represented Moderates and Extremists chose Bal Gangadhar Tilak as their Leader. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became a mass party and led Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920, Civil Dis-obedience Movement 1930 and Quit India Movement in 1942. Mahatma Gandhi became supreme leader of Congress.


Muslim League was made to support Viceroy Lord Curjon’s move for bifurcation of Bengal. It was founded by Nawab Khwaja Salimullah in Dhaka in 1906. All India Muslim League was centre for partition of India and Pakistan. First of all, Muslim League wanted two nations theory from English Government. Muslim League never launched any political movements for freedom. It mobilized its religion across the world. Khilafat Movement was designed by All India Muslim League to support Turky against English Government. Although Congress also extended its support to All India Muslim League. Mahatma Gandhi brought Congress and Muslim League altogether. Muslim League only came with congress to agitate against British Government. It was not a mass party. Leaders of this party only wanted separate area for muslims and hindus. Finally All India Muslim League found a leader in Mohammad Ali Jinna who fulfilled its dreams. India was partitioned into nations India and Pakistan. In 1911, Bengal Partition was withdrawn by King George V, but it was further partitioned after independence. Now Muslim League exists itself at Kerala in India.


Swadeshi Movement was begun in 1905. It was a tool by which Nationalism was brought in Modern India. It was a step by which Indians tried to hammer English Economy. Raw materials were taken away by British Government. They had technology so its production quantity and quality was better than India made finished goods. Costs of goods were also cheap. In this way, Indian business were set out from Market Competition. It was felt by many leaders so they started Swadeshi Movement. Due to collective steps, it affected badly to British Economy in India. People did not purchase british made clothes and items. They began to buy india made goods and materials. CHARKHA played a very essential role for India. Spinning of Charkha had come in routine. Mahatma Gandhi, Himself, spanned Charkha and made clothes. It is called Khadi. At present it is also running across the world. Quality of Khadi cannot be matched with any brand in the world.  This movement is not ended up by now.


Due to Russian Revolution in 1917, a lot of new generations inspired Lenin. There was a bend for communism. Authors and Poets wrote communist literature in the country. Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev, Ram Prasad Bismil, etc. revolutionary freedom fighters fought hard against British Rule in the India. Schools and colleges were abandoned for freedom movements. Mahatma became centre of Indian National Movement. First movement “NON – COOPERATION MOVEMENT” was launched by him in 1920. Second was “CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT” in 1930 and last was “QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT” in 1942. A voice of Mahatma Gandhi was able to collect millions of people. An awareness for its own rule rose sharply in the country between 1905 and 1947. Young people joined Congress. Many set up new organizations for freedom. Azad Hind Fauz was established by Subhash Chandra Bose who was selected for Indian Civil Services (Now it is called Indian Administrative Services). He quit ICS and joined Congress. He became President of Congress in 1938. Finally he resigned from Congress due to differences with old leaders of congress. He built Azad Hind Fauz with Ras Bihari Bose. Azad Hind Fauz fought against British Government during second world war.


The Government of India Act 1935 was drafted and passed for India by British Parliament. The Government of Burma Act 1935 was also brought and Burma was removed completely from India. The Government of India Act 1935 was largest act in the British Parliament by 1999. In 1999, British Parliament made The Greater London Authority Act 1999. It is now largest act of British Parliament. The Government of India Act 1935 gave more teeth to Indian National Movement. This act provided autonomy of Indian Provinces in British India. Direct Election took place and representatives were elected. Provincial Governments were formed. British Government kept a right to suspend these government if needed. Indian Constitution accepted almost all things from this act. Election was held as per federation of India.


It was expected before independence, Pakistan would be given birth. At last Viceroy Lord Mountbatten bifurcated Hindustan for Hindus and Pakistan for Muslims. British followed the policy of “DIVIDE AND RULE” while leaving from India, they made two nations as per population based provinces. Millions of Muslim migrated to Pakistan from Hindustan. It same happened for Hindus too. Communal Riots erupted in both countries. Trains from Pakistan to Hindustan and from Hindustan to Pakistan started to come to its destinations with dead people. It was one of the biggest scar on Indian History. Despite such riots, India gave Rs. 65 crores to Pakistan for establishing itself. It was said that Hindustan was considering 10 kilometer corridor to Pakistan from West Pakistan (Now Pakistan) to East Paksitan (Now Bangladesh). It was very terrific if took place into realty. Pakistan was made for Muslims Invaders like Muhammad Bin Quasim, Mahmood Ghazanavi, Muhammad Gauri, Changhez Khan, Taimur Lung, Babar, Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah Abdali who looted and torn Hindustan many times. They demolished Indian Ancient Temples and modified all temples into mosques. Afghanistan, Myanmar (Burma), Pakistan, Bangladesh these were made country from Hindustan.


Although it was a big victory for Hindus in Hindustan because by 12th century, Hindustan was only for Hindus. When one by one Muslim Invaders came and looted Hindustan due to lack of Unity among Indian Kings. By 16th Century, it was become totally Muslimistan. No Hindus King was able to tackle Muslim Badshah. Although Rajput and Maratha showed its bravery but it was not enough to establish a Hindu State. Hindus Kings were duped by East India Company once again along with Muslim Nawabs. Then at least 100 years, East India Company sucked Indian Economy. After 1857, British Government followed stick and carrot. British Government made us greedy for Equality, Freedom, Human Rights, etc. but at last they believed “DIVIDE & RULE” to stay in Hindustan. They partitioned Hindustan and Pakistan. As per Hindus Point of View, it was a big victory for Hindustan. In democratic system, leaders were chosen as per voting. A lot of Hindu Leaders sacrificed their life for freedom. After independence, Hindus came into main stream despite giving birth to Pakistan.


Hindustan bore all attacks on its soil. From 12th Century by now, Hindus was not a collective force. They were divided into caste. After independence, Hindus are not Hindu. They represent their caste, not their religion. Pakistan made an Islamic Country, but Hindustan became Secular India. At that time of partition, Hindustan was totally for Hindus. Despite this fact, it was made a Secular State. Vote Bank Politics carried on. Muslims who were then only 4%, now they are at least 25% because of secular state. All India Muslim Personal Law Board was made to take decision on their beliefs. Judiciary is only for Hindus. It is seemed that Indian Secular Constitution is only for Hindus. There is a hope for Hindus from 2014 when Hindus dominated political party came to power and it is once again repeated in 2019. This political party is on treatment mode for old man made issues for weakening Hindus. ALL Hindus must be supportive for such agenda if they want its antiquity.

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well said

good article

Full of blunders, concocted and fabricated stories


Very good

Pradeep Singh